Additional look into GAN-based augmentation for deep learning COVID-19 image classification

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Oleksandr Fedoruk
Konrad Klimaszewski
Aleksander Ogonowski
Michał Kruk

Keywords : computer vision, deep learning, image classification, generative adversarial networks, medical imaging

Data augmentation is a popular approach to overcome the insufficiency of training data for medical imaging. Classical augmentation is based on modification (rotations, shears, brightness changes, etc.) of the images from the original dataset. Another possible approach is the usage of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN). This work is a continuation of the previous research where we trained StyleGAN2-ADA by Nvidia on the limited COVID-19 chest X-ray image dataset. In this paper, we study the dependence of the GAN-based augmentation performance on dataset size with a focus on small samples. Two datasets are considered, one with 1000 images per class (4000 images in total) and the second with 500 images per class (2000 images in total). We train StyleGAN2-ADA with both sets and then, after validating the quality of generated images, we use trained GANs as one of the augmentations approaches in multi-class classification problems. We compare the quality of the GAN-based augmentation approach to two different approaches (classical augmentation and no augmentation at all) by employing transfer learning-based classification of COVID-19 chest X-ray images. The results are quantified using different classification quality metrics and compared to the results from the previous article and literature. The GAN-based augmentation approach is found to be comparable with classical augmentation in the case of medium and large datasets but underperforms in the case of smaller datasets. The correlation between the size of the original dataset and the quality of classification is visible independently from the augmentation approach.

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Fedoruk, O., Klimaszewski, K., Ogonowski, A., & Kruk, M. (2023). Additional look into GAN-based augmentation for deep learning COVID-19 image classification. Machine Graphics and Vision, 32(3/4), 107–124.

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